As the influence of GenAI-based applications continues to expand, the critical need to enhance their performance becomes ever more apparent. In the realm of production applications, responses are expected within a range of milliseconds to seconds. The integration of Large Language Models (LLMs) has the potential to extend response times of such applications to few more seconds. This blog intricately explores diverse strategies aimed at optimizing response times in applications that harness Large Language Models on the Azure platform. In broad context, the subsequent methodologies can be employed to optimize the responsiveness of Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) applications:
- Response Optimization of LLM models
- Designing an Efficient Workflow orchestration
- Improving Latency in Ancillary AI Services
The inherent complexity and size of Language Model (LLM) architectures contribute substantially to the latency observed in any application upon their integration. Therefore, prioritizing the optimization of LLM responsiveness becomes imperative. Let's now explore various strategies aimed at enhancing the responsiveness of LLM applications, placing particular emphasis on the optimization of the Large Language Model itself.
Key factors influencing the latency of LLMs are
Prompt Size and Output token count
A token is a unit of text that the model processes. It can be as short as one character or as long as one word, depending on the model's architecture. For example, in the sentence “ChatGPT is amazing,” there are five tokens: [“Chat”, “G”, “PT”, ” is”, ” amazing”]. Each word or sub-word is considered a token, and the model analyses and generates text based on these units. A helpful rule of thumb is that one token corresponds to ~4 characters of text for common English text. This translates to ¾ of a word (so 100 tokens ~= 75 words).
A deployment of the GPT-3.5-turbo instance on Azure comes with a rate limit of around 120,000 tokens per minute, equivalent to approximately 2,000 tokens per second ( Details of TPM limits of each Azure OpenAI model are given here . It is evident that the quantity of output tokens has a direct impact on the response of Large Language Models (LLMs), consequently influencing the application's responsiveness. To Optimize application response times, it is recommended to minimize the number of output tokens generated. Set an appropriate value for the max_tokens parameter to limit the response length. This can help in controlling the length of the generated output.
The latency of LLMs is influenced not only by the output tokens but also by the input prompts. Input prompts can be categorized into two main types:
- Instructions, which serve as guidelines for LLMs to follow, and
- Information, providing a summary or context for the grounded data to be processed by LLMs.
While instructions are typically of standard lengths and crucial for prompt construction, but the inclusion of multiple tasks may lead to varied instructions, and ultimately increasing the overall prompt size. It is advisable to limit prompts to a maximum of one or two tasks to manage prompt size effectively. Additionally, the information or content can be condensed or summarized to optimize the overall prompt length.
The size of the LLMs is typically measured in terms of its parameters. A simple neural network with just one hidden layer has a parameter for each connection between nodes (neurons) across layers and for each node's bias. The more layers and nodes a model have, the more parameters it will contain. A larger parameter size usually translates into a more complex model that can capture intricate patterns in the data.
Applications frequently utilize Large Language Models (LLMs) for various tasks such as classification, keyword extraction, reasoning, and summarization. It is crucial to choose the appropriate model for the specific task at hand. Smaller models like Davinci are well-suited for tasks like classification or key value extraction, offering enhanced accuracy and speed compared to larger models. On the other hand, large models are more suitable for complex use cases like summarization, reasoning and chat conversations. Selecting the right model tailored to the task optimizes both efficiency and performance.
Leverage Azure-hosted LLM Models
Azure AI Studio provides customers with cutting-edge language models like OpenAI's GPT-4, GPT-3, Codex, DALL-E, and Whisper models, and other open-source models all backed by the security, scalability, and enterprise assurances of Microsoft Azure. The OpenAI models are co-developed by Azure OpenAI and OpenAI, ensuring seamless compatibility and a smooth transition between the different models.
By opting for Azure OpenAI, customers not only benefit from the security features inherent to Microsoft Azure but also run on the same models employed by OpenAI. This service offers additional advantages such as private networking, regional availability, scalability, and responsible AI content filtering, enhancing the overall experience and reliability of language AI applications.
If anyone is using GenAI models from creators, the transition to Azure-hosted version of these Models has yielded notable enhancements in the response time of the models. This shift to Azure infrastructure has led to improved efficiency and performance, resulting in more responsive and timely outputs from the models.
Rate Limiting, Batching, Parallelize API calls
Large language models are subject to rate limits, such as RPM (requests per minute) and TPM (tokens per minute), which depend on the chosen model and platform. It is important to recognize that rate limiting can introduce latency into the application. To accommodate high traffic requirements, it is recommended to select the maximum value for the max_token parameter to prevent any occurrence of a 429 error, which can lead to subsequent latency issues. Additionally, it is advisable to implement retry logic in your application to further enhance its resilience.
When you find yourself reaching the upper limit of RPM but remain comfortably within TPM bounds, consolidating multiple requests into a single batch can optimize your response times. This batching approach enables more efficient utilization of the model's token capacity without violating rate limits.
Moreover, if your application involves multiple calls to the LLMs API, you can achieve a notable speed boost by adopting an asynchronous programming approach that allows requests to be made in parallel. This concurrent execution minimizes idle time, enhancing overall responsiveness and making the most of available resources.
If the parameters are already optimized and the application requires additional support for higher traffic and a more scalable approach, consider implementing a load balancing solution through Azure API Management layer.
Stream output and use stop sequence
Every LLM endpoint has a particular throughput capacity. As discussed, earlier GPT-3.5-turbo instance on Azure comes with a rate limit of 120,000 tokens per minute, equivalent to approximately 2 tokens per milliseconds. So, to get an output paragraph with 2000 tokens it takes 1 second and the time taken to get the output response increases as the number of tokens increase. The time taken for the output response (Latency) can be measured as the sum of time taken for the first token generation and the time taken per token from the first token onwards. That is
Latency = (Time to first token + (Time taken per token * Total tokens))
So, to improve latency we can stream the output as every token gets generated instead of waiting for the entire paragraph to finish. Both the completions and chat Azure OpenAI APIs support a stream parameter, which when set to true, streams the response back from the model via Server Sevent Events (SSE). We can use Azure Functions with FastAPI to stream the output of OpenAI models in Azure as shown in the blog here.
Incorporating GenAI solutions into applications requires the utilization of specialized frameworks like LangChain or Semantic Kernel. These frameworks play a crucial role in orchestrating multiple Large Language Model (LLM) based tasks and grounding these models on custom datasets. However, it's essential to address the latency introduced by these frameworks in the overall application response. To minimize the impact on application latency, a strategic approach is imperative. A highly effective strategy involves optimizing LLM usage through workflow consolidation, either by minimizing the frequency of calls to LLM APIs or simplifying the overall workflow steps. By streamlining the process, you not only enhance the overall efficiency but also ensure a smoother user experience.
For example, when the requirement is to identify the intention of the user query and based on its context get response by grounding on data from multiple sources. Most times such requirements are executed as a 3-step process –
- the first step is to identify the intent using a LLM
- and the next step is to get the prompt content from the knowledge base relevant to the intent
- and then with the prompt content get the output derived from the LLMs.
One simple approach could be to leverage data engineering and building a consolidated knowledge base with data from all sources and using the input user text directly as the prompt to the grounded data in knowledge base to get the final LLM response in almost a single step.
The supporting AI services like Vector DB, Azure AI Search, data pipelines, and others that complement a Language Model (LLM)-based application within the overall Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) pattern are often referred to as “ancillary AI services.” These services play a crucial role in enhancing different aspects of the application, such as data ingestion, searching, and processing, to create a comprehensive and efficient AI ecosystem. For instance, in scenarios where data ingestion plays a substantial role, optimizing the ingestion process becomes paramount to minimize latency in the application.
Similarly lets look at the improvement of few other such services –
Azure AI search
Here are some tips for better performance in Azure AI Search:
Index size and schema: Queries run faster on smaller indexes. One best practice is to periodically revisit index composition, both schema and documents, to look for content reduction opportunities. Schema complexity can also adversely affect indexing and query performance. Excessive field attribution builds in limitations and processing requirements.
Query design: Query composition and complexity are one of the most important factors for performance, and query optimization can drastically improve performance.
Service capacity: A service is overburdened when queries take too long or when the service starts dropping requests. To avoid this, you can increase capacity by adding replicas or upgrading the service tier.
For more information on the optimizations of Azure AI Search index please refer here .
For optimizing third-party vector databases, consider exploring techniques such as vector indexing, Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) search (instead of KNN), optimizing data distribution, implementing parallel processing, and incorporating load balancing strategies. These approaches enhance scalability and improve overall performance significantly.
In conclusion, these strategies contribute significantly to mitigating latency and enhancing response in large language models. However, given the inherent complexity of these models, the optimal response time can fluctuate between milliseconds and 3-4 seconds. It is crucial to recognize that comparing the response expectations of large language models to those of traditional applications, which typically operate in milliseconds, may not be entirely equitable.